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      全球一半胃癌發生在中國,有什么辦法能預防嗎?

      來源:南大2018-10-25 09:10

      據新聞報道,在日前舉辦的“2018全國早期胃癌防治宣傳周”啟動儀式上,中國工程院院士、長海醫院消化內科主任李兆申教授指出,全球將近一半的新發胃癌患者和死亡病例在中國,并建議40歲以上高危人群定期開展胃癌早篩。

      :e藥環球

       

      我們來看一下具體的數據。

       

      根據國家癌癥中心陳萬青教授等2017年發表的《中國胃癌流行病學現狀》,2012年中國胃癌新發病例約為42.4萬例,胃癌死亡病例約為29.8萬例,分別占全球胃癌發病和死亡的42.6%和45.0%。所以說,“全球將近一半的新發胃癌患者和死亡病例在中國”,這句話并不夸張。

       

      那么這樣一種嚴重威脅中國人民生命與健康的惡性腫瘤,有沒有辦法來預防呢?一起來了解一下。

      1

      胃癌是怎么找上中國人的?

      1

      幽門螺旋桿菌(HP)感染

       

      據《第五次幽門螺桿菌診治共識》發布會的信息,中國的幽門螺桿菌感染率約50%,感染人數有7.68億

       

      它像個詭異的狼牙棒,有很多條尾巴提供動力,加上特殊的螺旋結構,能很快地穿透微黏膜表面的黏液,跑到適宜生存的地方去。生活中很多不經意的細節,都在為這種細菌創造“毀胃”的機會。

       

      這種主要通過唾液傳播的細菌,是首個被世界衛生組織確認可對人類致癌的原核生物。

       

      不過感染了它,不代表就和胃癌劃上等號。幽門螺桿菌一定會引起慢性活動胃炎,但除了少部分人會消化不良、潰瘍、患惡性腫瘤,70%的患者都沒有癥狀。

       

      即便不是感染了它就會得癌癥,可感染人群發展出胃癌的可能性,仍然是未感染人群的4-6倍。

       

      2

      喜吃高鹽、煙熏、油炸、燒烤類食物

      常吃剩菜剩飯

      從全球范圍來看,胃癌在東亞地區尤其高發。這一區域的中國、韓國、日本,在飲食習慣上都有相同的特點:中國人喜歡吃臘肉、香腸等熏制食品,韓國、日本喜歡吃泡菜、腌制海鮮、蝦醬,這些食物的鹽分含量都極高。

       

      過量攝入的食鹽,直接損傷胃表面黏膜,引起胃粘膜細胞改變,導致胃酸分泌異常。而且在發酵和消化過程中,高鹽食品會產生強致癌物——亞硝酸胺。它們影響人體內的基因表達,破壞DNA信息,從而誘發癌癥。

       

      經亞硝酸鹽處理過的肉類在油煎、燒烤、煙熏時,還會產生大量的亞硝基吡咯烷——一種更強大的致癌物。

       

      除此之外,高鹽分還可以協同幽門螺旋桿菌,促進胃癌的發生。

       

      根據世界衛生組織的建議,為了在滿足人體需要的基礎上,不增加胃癌發作風險,人每天攝入鹽分不應超過5g——剛剛盛滿一個啤酒瓶蓋的量。

       

      3

      抽煙喝酒——中年男性居多

      人人都知道吸煙有害健康,酒精也不是好朋友,可還是煙酒不能離手。

       

      抽煙百害無一利已是共識。煙中含有的尼古丁、亞硝胺等致癌物質,除了會引起胃癌,還可能誘發肺癌、膀胱癌、口腔癌等多種癌癥。

       

      有意大利學者在研究喝酒與患腫瘤等疾病的關系30年后發現,即便是每天只攝入25g酒精,也會增加各種疾病的風險。

       

      雖然酒精本身不致癌,它在體內代謝成的乙醛卻有極強的細胞毒性。在世界衛生組織國際癌癥研究機構公布的致癌物清單中,與酒精飲料攝入有關的乙醛屬于一類致癌物。

       

      中年男性工作、生活壓力大,男性中吸煙、飲酒的比例也較女性大,這也是男性更易罹患胃癌的原因。根據臨床大規模的分析,男性患胃癌風險通常是女性的2-3倍,且在35歲之后,胃癌的發生率快速增高。

      2

      怎樣預防胃癌?

      預防胃癌,你該這樣做

      01

      養成公筷公匙習慣,避免交叉感染幽門螺旋菌

       

      研究顯示,如果能根除幽門螺旋菌,胃癌發生率可以降低25-30%。

       

      因此,養成公筷公匙,不與人共享食物、分食食物,減少交叉感染幽門螺旋菌,是降低胃癌幾率的最有效方法。

       

      這也是為什么習慣有自己獨立餐盤的歐美國家,胃癌發生率非常低;反觀國內胃癌的比例卻一直高居不下的最重要原因。

       

      02

      多吃蔬菜水果:每天最少吃2份水果3份蔬菜

       

      世界癌研究財團發表的研究報告顯示,新鮮蔬果具有抗癌效果,可降低胃癌和肺癌的患病率。

       

      蔬菜和水果富含維生素A、C、E,有助于預防癌癥,常攝取的人比不常攝取的人患胃癌機率低48∼70%。

       

      植物中含有植化素(phytochemica),進入人體后,可進行抗氧化作用,有助于預防老化和防癌,其中蘿卜、高麗菜、海帶芽含量最高。

       

      03

      避免攝取高鹽食物、煙熏燒烤食物及加工肉品

       

      高鹽份、煙熏燒烤及含有硝酸鹽的腌制食物皆被證實與胃癌的發生有關。世界衛生組織早將煙熏、加工肉品,如:香腸、火腿、培根都列為一級致癌食品。

       

      研究顯示,經常食用高鹽分的腌制漬品如咸魚、肉干,或是使用過多醬油的料理以及煙熏食物,胃癌發生率會提高2倍

       

      日常建議清淡健康飲食,煮食以蒸、白灼、炆、煮、焗為主,避免煎、炸、燒烤、 煙熏的食物。多用天然香草或香料作調味。以均衡飲食為主,盡量減少攝取加工食品以及過度烹調或調味的食品。

       

      04

      多攝取預防胃癌的天然食物,減少紅肉的攝入

      多攝取預防胃癌發生的天然食物。如:新鮮蔬 菜、鮮奶、全麥面包、 谷類制品、及富含維生素C、維生素E、胡蘿卜素及鈣質等的食物。

       

      減少紅肉攝取以高蛋白質、低卡路里的白肉魚、雞肉補充人體必須脂肪酸和蛋白質

       

      部分研究顯示,吃過多牛肉會增加胃癌風險,而食用新鮮的魚類、雞肉,則有助于降低胃癌風險。

       

      05

      忌煙及忌酒

       

      根據流行病學的研究發現,抽煙、喝酒會導致患胃癌的機率大增。

       

      吸煙已被證實與胃癌有顯著相關性,吸煙者患胃癌的風險比從未吸煙者高出1.5-2.5倍。全球估計有11%的胃癌個案是由吸煙引起。

       

      意大利學者在研究喝酒與癌癥等疾病的關系30年后發現,即便每天只攝入25克的酒精,也會增加各種疾病的風險。

       

      06

      維持健康體重:常運動

       

      世界癌癥研究基金會與美國癌癥研究院發表的最新“防癌指南”中建議,每天最好可以運動60分鐘、每周3-5天,不管是健走、跳舞、騎單車、爬樓梯、各種運動都可以。

      07

      定期做胃癌早期篩檢

      目前醫界普遍都認為,四十歲以上的成人,尤其對胃癌高危險群的人,定期接受胃鏡檢查是絕對必要的,畢竟早期發現,早期治療是治療癌癥的不二法則。

       

      那有哪些人是肝癌的高危人群,需要及時做胃癌篩查的呢?

       

      根據《中國早期胃癌篩查流程專家共識意見》:

      年齡≥40歲,且符合下列任意一條者,建議其作為胃癌篩查對象人群:

      ①胃癌高發地區人群;

      ②Hp感染者;

      ③既往患有慢性萎縮性胃炎、胃潰瘍、胃息肉、手術后殘胃、肥厚性胃炎、惡性貧血等胃的癌前疾病;

      ④胃癌患者一級親屬;

      ⑤存在胃癌其他風險因素(如攝入高鹽、腌制飲食、吸煙、重度飲酒等)。

       

      了解完了胃癌的預防方法,為了我們的健康,大家趕快重視并行動起來吧!

      報名試聽健康管理師課程長按識別二維碼




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